There are different types of damage in Vagante. They vary according to the affinities and stats that affect them.
Physical Damage is very common in all areas of Vagante.
The amount of physical damage you receive can be reduced by increasing your Defense (DEF)
All physical damage can be blocked using the Knight's Defense Affinity, dodged using the Rogue's Acrobatics Affinity, and evaded using the Wildling's Wolf's Sprint.
Elemental Damage is scarcely used in the regular areas and omnipresent in the side areas.
The amount of elemental damage you receive can be reduced or negated by increasing the corresponding Elemental Resistances (XRES).
Elemental Damage can be reduced using the Knight's Holy Shield, evaded using the Wildling's Wolf's Sprint (only certain types) and resisted using the Lucky Resist.
Players using the Death's Acolyte Background or armor with the Death becomes easier to encounter attribute still take elemental damage with maxed elemental resistances.
It is unknown whether or not this is intended.
Raw Damage is damage that can only be reduced by certain affinities and attributes. The only way to counter raw damage without affinities or attributes is by not taking it in the first place or evading it.
Affinities that can help to avoid some types of raw damage include the Wildling's Wolf's Sprint, the Rogue's Acrobatics Affinity, and the Knight's Defense Affinity.
Spikes, Boulder Traps, Knife Traps, Void, Acid, Fall Damage, and Suffocation.